Unit V Scholarly Activity
Review the unit lesson, and write a reflection paper by responding to the following prompts:
- Compare leadership and followership in a paragraph or two.
- Create a table with two columns comparing leadership and followership with at least five characteristics for each.
- Explain the formal and informal roles of leadership and followership. Discuss behaviors of each.
- Discuss a situation when your behavior depicted that of either a charismatic, transformational, transactional, or laissez-faire leader.
- Discuss a situation when your behavior depicted that of one of the five follower types: alienated follower, passive follower, conformist follower, pragmatic follower, or effective follower.
Your submission should be at least two pages. Headings and subheadings are encouraged. All sources used must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. Include at least one outside resource. Be sure to use APA Style for citations and references.
Unit V Scholarly Activity Instructions Review the unit lesson, and write a reflection paper by responding to the following prompts: Compare leadership and followership in a paragraph or two.Create a
LDR 3301, Leadership 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit V Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 3. Differentiate between effective leadership s and followership. 3.1 Compare leadership and followership. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 3.1 Unit Lesson Video: Roger Ferguson Discusses Leadership and Followership Article: “ How Followers Create Leaders: The Impact of Effective Followership on Leader Emergence in Self -managing Teams ” Article: “ Leadership, Followership, and Evolution: Some Lessons from the Past ” Article: “Psychosocial and Tangible Distance Between a Leader and a Follower: The Impact on Dyadic Relations” Unit V Scholarly Activity Required Unit Resources In order to access the following resources, click the links below. Prendismo (Producer). (2013). Roger Ferguson discusses leadership and followership [Video]. Films on Demand . https://libraryresources.colu mbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=165037 The transcript for this video can be found by clicking on “Transcript” in the gray bar to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database. Jia ng, X., Snyder, K., Li, J., & Manz, C. C. (2021 , December ). How followers create leaders: The impact of effective followership on leader emergence in self -managing teams . Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice , 25 (4), 303 –318. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dire ct=true&db=pdh&AN=2021 -68514 -001&site=ehost -live&scope=site Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008 , April ). Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past . American Psyc hologist , 63 (3), 182 –196. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dire ct=true&db=pdh&AN=2008 -03389 -004&site=ehost -live&scope=site Meirovich, G., & Goswami, A. (2021). Psychosocial and tangible distance between a lea der and a follower: The impact on dyadic relations . Journal of Leadership Studies, 14 (4), 6 –20. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dire ct=true&db=bsu&AN=149219164&site=ehost -live&scope=site UNIT V STUDY GUIDE How You Lead and Follow LDR 3301, Leadership 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Uni t Lesson How You Lead and Follow The first four units of this course discussed leadership styles, traits, behaviors, and theories; furthermore, we covered how a leader’s ethics, morals, and values relate to motivation, power, and theory. Global and group cultures were discussed, along with group development, group composition, and the influence leaders have on culture. The previous unit focuse d on followership and the dyadic relationship between leaders and followers along with the concept of a high -perfo rmance team, team development, team -member exchange theory, some limitations observed with in groups and teams, and the role s of leaders and members in global teams. Moving along the journey of learning about leadership is a continuance of an investigation into typologies and relationships between leaders and followers. This unit discusses both leaders and followers because, without both, there is neither. You will learn about follower types now that you have learned about various leadership theories and cha racteristics. We will begin with a discussion on the perceptions of leaders and followers. Leaders and Followers On one hand, the concept of a leader is considered informal, situational, and not a position on the other end of the spectrum. A leader is vi ewed as a formal role such as a manager in a supervisory relationship with followers, also known as subordinates; a leader is also viewed in an informal role, such as a person who organically takes a role of a leader within a team. At times, individuals ma y embody both an informal and formal role of a leader and follower. For example, large organizations utilize cross -functional teams that consist of employees from different departments to accomplish a common purpose. A department supervisor may be assigned to a cross -functional team who takes the team leader role while members of the team may consist of employees who are in a higher positional status along the organizational hierarchy such as a department director from a different department (see Figure 1). Thus, the concept of a leader may be viewed in the traditional sense of a positional status; whereas, the alternative perspective of a leader is recognized as the act of influencing others regardless of hierarchy status. Figure 1: Functional and Cross -Functional Teams Leaders are considered as those who influence and guide followers toward their vision, mission, or goals, and followers are seen as those who concede to directives although, practically, the relationship between a leader and follower is not that black and white; rather, it is gray. The relationship between leaders and followers is better described as a linear and fluid exchange of mutual influence. The topics of leaders and leadership has a la rger audience in literature and rese arch while the study of followers and followership is underrepresented (Uhl -Bien et al., 2014). There is an increase in follower -centric research showing significant promise in helping scholars and practitioners understa nd the follower -leader relationship dynamics (Lussier & Achua, 2022). LDR 3301, Leadership 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title It is easy to romanticize leadership as society has placed the role of a traditional leader as those in a higher position such as Nelson Mandela; Mahatma Gandhi; Martin Luther King, Jr .; and Abraham Lincoln among many more; however, do you think they would be considered great leaders who changed the world without the support of followers? Society seems to place a higher priority on leaders, and some, such as Adolf Hitler, seek the power of a leader for nefarious reasons. How did Hitler and, subsequently, Joseph Stalin gain so much power that they recruited an army of soldiers who perpetrated the murder of millions of innocent victims? Is this different than Vladimir Putin’s war on Ukrain e? Leaders simply would not be leaders without followers and vice versa. Follower Types and Followership Followers may be described as those under the direct influence of a leader; followership may be described as the behavior of followers that results from a mutual leader -follower exchange (Lussier & Achua, 2022). Followers seek individuals with leadership authority to be a vehicle for their ideas and motivations (Jiang et al., 2021). Leadership and followership are a dynamic exchange of influence that ebbs and flows in any given situation and is mutually reinforced. Although leaders may also be followers, followers are not always leaders. Some scholars have developed models in an attempt to categorize follower types. Kelley (2008) described five styles of followers: alienated, passive, conformist, pragmatic, and effective (see Figure 1). Review the following types of followers, and consider the one type that would best follow a leader such as Vladimir Putin. Figure 2: Five St yles of Follower Types 1. The alienated follower is low on involvement and high on critical thinking; one who feels cheated and unappreciated and unwilling to participate and develop solutions to problems. 2. The passive follower is described as low on critica l thinking and low on involvement who lacks initiative and commitment to the team thus requiring constant supervision and never goes beyond the job description. 3. The conformist follower is high on involvement but low on critical thinking; they are the yes -people who are passive and carry out orders unquestionably. 4. The pragmatic follower exhibits some of all four styles depending on the situation and style that is fitting; they present an ambiguous image with both positive and negative behaviors. 5. The effect ive follower is high on critical thinking and involvement; they are not risk -averse, nor do they shy away from conflict. They have courage to initiate change and serve in the best interest of the organization. LDR 3301, Leadership 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Now that you have an understanding of followe r types, consider how you might describe the leadership style of Hitler, Stalin, and Putin. We have not discussed the nefarious style of leadership that may best describe these leaders. Upon watching the following video by Roger W. Ferguson, Jr., let’s con tinue the discussion of how different forms of leadership may simultaneously reside within the same leader as we review leader profiles. Take a moment to watch this leadership and followership video as Roger W. Ferguson, Jr., the president and CEO of TIAA -CREF, discusses leadership and followership. The transcript for this video can be found by clicking on “Transcript” in the gray bar to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database. This video is also included in the Required Resources section of this unit. Leader Profiles We have all watched movies with characters who play the part of both a villain and hero. Have you stopped to think that leaders may also play that same role in organizations? There are four leadership theories that will help in understanding leader profile s through charismatic, transactional and transformational, and laissez -faire leadership. This unit delves further into the transactional and transformational leadership theory discussion in the first unit. Charismatic leadership , first introduced by Webe r (as cited in Yukl & Gardner, 2022 ), was used to describe a form of influence based on follower perceptions of a leader based on exceptional qualities and not in the traditional sense of formal authority. The concept of charismatic leadership evolved into neo -charismatic theories to describe motives and behaviors of charismatic leaders and psychological processes that explain the behaviors and influence that charismatic leader s have on followers. Konger and Kanungo (as cited in Yukl & Gardner, 202 0) refined the charismatic theory as the follo wer’s attribution of a leader as having charismatic qualities based on a leader’s behavior, expertise, and situational aspects. According to Yukl and Gardner (2020), charismatic leaders have been de scribed in various ways, such as encouraging visionary thi nking, communicating a vision, having conviction, and exhibiting extraordinary social behaviors and unmatched self – confidence. Some scholars support a sociological view of charismatic leadership sug gesting charisma is a result of a situation or crisis an d the leader’s extraordinary qualities or a combination of the two (Lussier & Achua, 2022). Furthermore, advocates of this perspective suggest Martin Luthe r King, Jr., Nelson Mandela, Adolf Hitler, and Joseph Stalin would not have emerged as charismatic le aders without the crises faced from the socio – economic or political events of their time. Other scholars believe charismatic leadership is simply the interaction of a leader’s innate qualities and a situational crisis, while others argue charisma as being a follower attribution. Regardless of how you perceive charismatic leadership, it is important to understand there is a perceived positive and negative side of this leader who is a master in social charm and influence. Another leadership style known for demonstrating influence over followers is transformational and transactional leadership. Burns (1978) developed the theory of transformational and transactional leadership, which consists of transformational, transactional, and laissez -faire styles. Transf ormational leaders are described as leaders who encourage subordinates to develop their full potentials and transcend their self – interests by appealing to moral values in an attempt to raise consciousness about ethical issues and mobilize energies and reso urces for the good of the organization (Yukl & Gardner, 2020) . The theory of transformational and transactional leadership is described by the founder, Bass, as leaders demonstrating behaviors associated with three forms of leadership with varying degrees, namely, transactional, transformational, and laissez -faire ( as cited in Yukl & Gardner, 2020). LDR 3301, Leadership 5 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Transformational leadership consists of four dimensions―idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individual consideration, and intellectual stimulation ( Bass & Riggio, 2006). Idealized influence is described as a leader exhibiting exemplary behavior and developing a strong emotional attachment to a vision that transcends one’s self -interest for the good of the organization. Inspirational motivation is a le ader’s ability to communicate a clear, idealistic, and inspiring vision. Individual consideration describes a leader who is engaged with employees and serves as a coach and mentor and responds to their needs and concerns. Finally, intellectual stimulation describes the leaders who nurture and stimulate employees’ creativity. Although leaders change their style of leadership and may have several styles of leadership attributed to them, one leader that stands out as a transformational leader is Mary Kay Ash, who created the company Mary Kay, a cosmetics empire led and managed by highly motivated and in novative women (Piper -osorio, 2014). Mary Kay inspired women to strive for success during a time when women were less likely to populate a workplace during the 1 960s. Mary Kay’s successful business was largely due to her leadership style and insisting her company adhere to strict qualities of creating a positive shared vision, encouraging and practicing ethical behavior, and motivating followers to achieve a share d vision by appealing to emotions (Piper -osorio, 2014). Transactional leadership is a contrasting style that is effective with certain followers. Transactional leaders motivate subordinates by establishing a form of transactional relationship described a s a give -and -take exchange where the leader provides rewards and praise in exchange for their work. The transactional leader is task -oriented and understands what needs to be accomplished to achieve the desired results. A ccording to Doucet et al. (2015) , three dimensions are associated with transactional leaders: contingent rewards, management -by -exception active, and management -by -exception passive. Contingent reward is described as a leader who clarifies objectives to be attained and rewards subordinates who perform well. Rather than taking an affirmative response for subordinates who achieve desired results, the management -by -exception active focuses on the mistakes and instead scrutinize results and take corrective actions. M anagement -by – exception passiv e also focuses on mistakes and takes corrective action; however, they wait for a serious error before taking action. An example of transactional leadership style is often observed within the military where those in higher ranks explain tasks and expectatio ns to those in the lower ranks, and often tasks are routine, environments ar e stable, and goals and structures are clear (De Hoogh et al. , 2005). While transactional leaders remain enga ged with subordinates and situations, the laissez -faire leader avoids responsibilities. Laissez -faire is characterized as a leader’s general lack of concern―for subordinates or sometimes their organization; they are reluctant to make decisions and may not always b e available when needed (Doucet et al., 2015). Laissez -faire leaders do not attend to the needs of subordinat es, and employees with high relational and guidance needs may react negatively by poor performance and disappointment. Simply put, laissez -faire leaders are unengaged, and some only work to earn a paych eck. Laissez -faire leaders manage challenging or problem situations by a reactive approach to correct mistakes (Sayyadi, 2021). LDR 3301, Leadership 6 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Bringing Follower Types and Leadership Theories Together Review the five follower types: alienated follower, passive follower , conformist follower, pragmatic follower, and effective follower. Next, review the four leadership theories: charismatic, transformational, transactional, and laissez -faire. Read the below prompts and consider which follower and leader types may best alig n. ____ 1. What leadership style best aligns with the alienated follower who is low on involvement and high on critical thinking? A. Transactional Leadership ____ 2. What leadership style best aligns with the conformist follower who is low on critical thinking and high on involvement? They are yes -people who are passive and carry out orders unquestionably. B. Charismatic Leadership ____ 3. What leadership style be st aligns with the passive follower described as low on critical thinking and low on involvement who lacks initiative and commitment to the team? C. Transformational Leadership ____ 4. What leadership style best aligns with the effective follower describe d as high on critical thinking and involvement? They are not risk -averse, nor do they shy away from conflict. D. Laissez -Faire Leadership ____ 5. What leadership style best aligns with the pragmatic follower described as exhibiting all four styles of foll ower types depending on the situation and style that is fitting? Although there is no right or wrong answer to this exercise, there is an explanation for a best -case scenario when matching the needs of a follower to the type of leader. 1. An alienated follower who is low on involvement and high on critical thinking may n eed a transformational leader who is engaged with their subordinates and skilled with coaching and mentoring. An alienated follower feels cheated and unappreciated, so coupling this follower type with an engaged transformational leader may help transition this follower to an effective follower. 2. A conformist follower who is low on critical thinking and high on involvement and is a yes -pe rson who is passive and carr ies out orders unquestionably may best align with a transactional leader who may convey to the follower what needs to be achieved and the follower achieves the task. 3. A passive follower described as low on critical thinking and low on involvement who lacks initiative and commitment to the team thus requiring constant supervision and never goes beyo nd the job description may be best coupled with a transformational leader who demonstrates inspirational motivation and individualized consideration. 4. An effective follower described as high on critical thinking and involvement who is not risk -averse , and does not shy away from conflict may best be coupled with a charismatic leader as they encourage visionary thinking, exhibit extraordinary social behaviors, and have an unmatched self – confidence. 5. A pragmatic follower described as exhibiting all four styles of follower types depending on the situation and style that is fitting may best be coupled with a transformational leader who shows individualized consideration, idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, and inspirational motivation to meet the needs of the pragmatic follower. As you may have noticed, there is no circumstance where a laissez -faire leader is effective. The laissez -faire leader who is unengaged could demotivate an effective follower and lead to high turnover as most followers would be d issatisfied while working with this style of leader. LDR 3301, Leadership 7 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Conclusion By now you should have an understanding of leadership and followership concepts. One does not need to be in a formal position to exercise leadership. A leader can be a follower, but a follo wer is not always a leader. Great leaders are also great followers. While leaders and leadership concepts are at the forefront of the minds of scholars and organizations, follower types help in understanding the dynamic exchange between leaders and followe rs. Charisma, transactional, and transformational theories are insightful ways of understanding and analyzing leaders. References Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership . Harper & Row. De Hoogh, A. H. B., Den Hartog, D. N., & Koopman, P. L. (2005, November 1). Linking the big five -factors of personality to charismatic and transactional leadership; perceived dynamic work environment as a moderator. Journal of Organizational Behavior , 26 (7), 839 –865. Doucet, O., Fredette, M., Simard, G., & Tremblay, M. (2015). Leader profiles and their effectiveness on employees’ outcomes. Human Performance , 28 (3), 244 –264. https://doi – org.libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/10.1080/08959285.2015.1021039 Jiang, X., Snyder, K., Li, J., & Manz, C. C. (2021, December). How followers create leaders: The impact of effective followership on leader emergence in self -managing teams. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice , 25 (4), 303 –318. https://libraryr esources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dire ct=true&db=pdh&AN=2021 -68514 -001&site=ehost -live&scope=site Kelley, R. E. (2008). Rethinking followership. In R. E. Riggio, I. Chaleff, & J. Lipman -Blumen (Eds.), The art of followership: How great followers create great leaders and organizations (pp. 5 –16). Jossey -Bass. Lussier, R. N., & Achua, C. F. (2022). Leadership: Theory, application, and skill development (7th ed.). SAGE. Piper -osorio, K. K. (2014, November 1). Tr ansformational leadership―Women’s benefit in the workplace. Leadership PSYCH 485 Blog, The Pennsylvania State University. https://sites.psu.edu/leadership/2014/11/01/transformational -leadership -womens -benefit -in-the – workplace/ Sayyadi, M. (2021). Transfo rmational and transactional leadership. HR Future , 9(2021), 34 –35. Uhl -Bien, M., Riggio, R. E., Lowe, K. B., & Carsten, M. K. (2014). Followership theory: A review and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly , 25 (1), 83 –104. Yukl , G. A., & Gardner, W. L., III. (2020). Leadership in organizations (9th ed. ). Pearson.