The link between entrepreneurship or marketing and urban transformation areas in Turkey. It’s a 2-3 page essay about it.

The link between entrepreneurship or marketing  and urban transformation areas in Turkey. It’s a 2-3 page essay about it.

The link between entrepreneurship or marketing and urban transformation areas in Turkey. It’s a 2-3 page essay about it.
19 Urban Transformation Name Institutional Affiliations Urban Transformation Summary In Turkey, “Urban Transformation,” or “Urban Development,” as it was called in the early times, emerged as a solution to the irregular settlements that emerged due to rapid urbanization that started in the 1950s. After 1980, it tried to prevent slums and unplanned urbanization with the agenda of municipalities. The Dikmen Valley Urban Transformation Project, the first and most comprehensive example of a project implemented to solve the slum problem in Turkey, consists of a total of 5 stages with ongoing stages. The first stage of the Valley can be called the urban landscape due to the improvement of the swamp in the region, while the next stages present an example of urban transformation. While this transformation process starts out positively in the first phase, it includes negative aspects as it paves the way for the transformation into luxury residences in the later phases and inflicts a loss of rights for the slum owners. It exemplifies the Çinçin neighborhood in the Altındağ district of Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, which has recently come to the fore with its residential area feature and has rapidly gained value. In 2006, the urban renewal process started under the name of the Altındağ Urban Transformation Project (Korkmaz & Balaban, 2020). Çinçin districts are among the shantytowns within the scope of the Urban Transformation Project. Between 2006 and 2014, 25 thousand of slums were demolished, and 7 thousand of residences, cultural centers, schools, and social facilities were built In this study, by examining the concept of urban transformation, the positive and negative aspects of the transformation and the importance of this transformation project for the city of Ankara will be discussed from a critical perspective through the examples of “Dikmen Valley Housing and Environmental Development Project” and “Altındağ Urban Transformation Project.” This article is also about; the urban transformation process and urban transformation projects. It aimed to understand the relationship between the phenomenon of daily life and space interaction. The concepts that determine the main framework in handling the subject are urban transformation and the interaction of daily life and space. Keywords: urban development, urban transformation, dikmen valley, cincin district, urban rent. Introduction After the 1950s, Turkey entered a rapid urbanization process with migration to big cities. In this process, unplanned urbanization and the formation of slums became inevitable. In order to solve this problem, firstly, urban development plans were made, and the concept of urban transformation was introduced to the municipalities in the 1980s. With urban transformation, the problem of slums and unplanned urbanization has been tried to be solved (Katerji, 2015). Still today, the ‘urban transformation,’ which is seen as the most important solution for the slum problem, has undergone a ‘rental transformation’ in a way. This article covers the urban transformation process and urban transformation projects. It aimed to understand the relationship between the phenomenon of daily life and space interaction. The concepts that determine the main framework in handling the subject are urban transformation and the interaction of daily life and space. Purpose and Scope of the Study This study deals with the urban transformation of the areas that emerged during the squatting process, which is among the problems affecting the development of Turkey, and the problems of social exclusion that became evident in this process. The study aims to show that the dimensions of social exclusion are observable in urban transformation areas, especially threatening poor neighborhoods and that urban transformation practices have the potential to deepen social exclusion. Hypothesis: The implementation of urban transformation projects has positive and negative impacts on residents’ daily lives and living conditions in the transformed areas. Research question What are the social and spatial implications of urban transformation projects on the daily lives and living conditions of residents in Turkey, particularly in the case of the Dikmen Valley and Çinçin District projects? Method of Study The method of the study, in order to test this claim, Çinçin district of Altındağ district of Ankara and Dikmen valley of Cankaya district were established as shantytowns and are currently in rapid construction for middle and upper-income levels. Among the methods to be used in this study; It is aimed to have detailed information about the subject by using different sources such as conducting interviews with the people living in the neighborhoods in the urban transformation process, exchanging documents with the municipalities to which these neighborhoods are affiliated, and examining the previous researches on the subject. Cincin district and Dikmen valley were chosen as examples; qualitative research methods will be used. Conversation with users Urban transformation Urban transformation is the revitalization of physically and environmentally degraded spaces and their reintegration into society, and the concept of urban transformation is discussed in many ways in the literature. Urban transformation as improving the economic, social, physical, and environmental conditions of urban areas that have deteriorated and collapsed with comprehensive and holistic approaches and thus reintroducing these areas to the city. While defining; Bakır (2019) clarifies the social impact of urban transformation; He says, “Urban transformation aims to restructure the urban people together with the urban space, urban culture, and urban life and to revitalize the urban economy together with the environment” and examines the effect of urban transformation on the urban people. With a similar perspective, Tokol (2014, p.1171) urban transformation, taking into account the historical and cultural values of the society, is defined as contributing to the city by re-planning its physical structure, which has deteriorated due to various reasons in technological, economic and social dimensions, and transforming and changing the urban areas and the built environment from the existing state as a result of various effects; Urban transformation in Demirarslan (2014, p.459); defines it as the transformation and change of urban areas and the built environment from their existing state to another form as a result of various effects. On the other hand, Turgut (2010, p.46) expresses urban transformation as the reintegration of the old or obsolete spaces of the cities, which emerged due to the interaction of the transformation space and the resistance mechanisms to the society. In summary, Urban transformation brings physically and environmentally degraded spaces to the environment. It revitalizes them by considering society’s historical and cultural values while bringing them into the environment. The Concept of Urban Return in Turkey Urban transformation in Turkey is among the concepts that emerged after the 1999 Marmara Earthquake. Natural disasters have caused the urban transformation in Turkey to differ from the examples abroad. In the examples abroad, some concepts are included in the urban transformation process in various plans, such as urban aesthetics and the preservation of history, in which the public has a voice, and it is aimed that cities create a more contemporary and sustainable living space. In Turkey, on the other hand, the public generally does not have a say in the projects, and action plans are created to build stronger structures instead of historic structures and sustainable living spaces. Each city in Turkey has different urban transformation plans, taking into account its geographical features (Kuyucu & Ünsal, 2010). The needs and expectations of each city differ from each other. The difference between the urban transformation plans implemented in natural disaster areas and the urban transformation plans of slums, especially in metropolitan areas, should be considered in this context. In the 1980s, important developments were experienced in urban transformation, as in every other subject. In 1990 and after, urban transformation in Turkey meant more urban renewal, and it has been a priority for cities to become more lively places. The concept of urban transformation in Turkey is handled unidimensional, its socioeconomic, cultural and environmental dimensions are not fully addressed, and the first feature of the projects revealed is the change of the physical area. TOKI’s Role in Urban Transformation It was established in 1984 under the name of the Housing Development Administration (TOKİ), under the Prime Ministry of the Republic of Turkey, as an administration whose main purpose is to build quality housing for low-income groups (Pérouse, 2015). It has undergone structural changes in the 2000s and has become the most important institution that directs urbanization policies. It has started to act as a company with both partnerships and investments. TOKİ, which is a monopoly in terms of urban applications along with legal applications, has forgotten its purpose of establishment and has become the center of housing policy in Turkey. The Role of Contractors in Urban Transformation Improvement development plans, which were created in the 1980s, lost their function with the speed of development of the cities and did not have the necessary features. Revision zoning plans were created in this framework, and changes were made in the living places of the people living in the shantytowns. In this structuring process, it is planned that the region’s rights will not be victimized and places where they can stay until the urban transformation projects, are completed. With the revision of zoning plans, the residents of the slums could have a say in the places they will live at the end of the urban transformation projects by agreeing with the contractors over their lands (Saraçoğlu & Demirtaş‐Milz, 2014). On the contrary, in some of the neighborhoods Solutions to the Slum Problem One of the biggest roles in the urban transformation process belongs to TOKİ and the other to the contractors. Mustafa Kara (2011) “The Role of Slum Transformation Projects in the Solution of Housing Problem in Turkey: The Case of Ankara Gultepe and Yatikmusluk”; II in developing countries. Rapid population growth and urbanization trends after World War II continue. Since the problems related to housing and property could not be solved, slums and illegal buildings have become the general view of developing countries. In these countries, one out of every three urban residents’ lives in slums, and the population of slums has exceeded one billion worldwide. For this reason, developing countries are struggling with a different dimension of the housing problem, squatting, and illegal housing. Therefore, urban transformation projects in these countries have been replaced by slum improvement. The urban transformation process reveals two important problems for those living in the slums; The first of these is their belief that there will be a decrease in living standards due to the limited financial opportunities due to the increase in their welfare level with the modernized places. The other is their belief that the shantytown culture will eliminate neighborhood, solidarity, and their own culture. The Relationship between Daily Life and Space The relationship between daily life and space is intricate and multidimensional. People’s daily activities and behaviors are shaped by the spaces they inhabit, such as their homes, workplaces, and public spaces (Koohsari et al., 2015). The design and layout of these spaces influence how people move, interact with each other and perform various tasks. Moreover, the quality of the space, including accessibility, safety, and cleanliness, affects people’s perceptions and attitudes toward their surroundings. Therefore, creating functional, inclusive, and livable spaces that promote social cohesion and well-being is essential. Everyday Life and Space Interaction The interaction between everyday life and space is a dynamic and continuous process. Spaces are designed and utilized to meet people’s needs and expectations in their daily lives, such as work, leisure, and socialization. In turn, people adapt to their surroundings by altering their behaviors, attitudes, and preferences. For instance, the availability of public spaces, such as parks, squares, and streets, influences the frequency and nature of social interactions among people. Similarly, residential areas’ design and amenities shape their inhabitants’ lifestyles and habits (Buttimer, 2015). Therefore, it is crucial to consider the reciprocal relationship between everyday life and space in the design and management of urban environments. Applications of Urban Transformation Projects from the World Hiroshima-Danbara City Urban Transformation Project (Japan) The Hiroshima-Danbara City Urban Transformation Project aimed to revitalize a declining urban area through community participation, environmental sustainability, and disaster prevention. The project involved: The renovation of public spaces. The establishment of new community facilities. The improvement of transportation networks. Promotion of local industries (Birch, 2008). The project’s success was attributed to the strong partnership between the public and private sectors, the active involvement of local residents, and the incorporation of traditional and modern elements in the design. Trafalgar Square Urban Transformation Project (England) The Trafalgar Square Urban Transformation Project aimed to enhance the cultural and historical significance of the square while improving its accessibility, safety, and attractiveness to tourists and residents. The project involved: Redesigning the pedestrian area. Installing new lighting and seating. Restoring historic buildings (Feilden, 2007). Implementing events and activities. The project’s success was attributed to the collaboration between various stakeholders, innovative design solutions, and the integration of art and technology. La Defense Urban Transformation Project (France) The La Defense Urban Transformation Project aimed to transform a suburban office district into a vibrant, mixed-use urban center through sustainable development and urban design. The project involved: The construction of new residential and commercial buildings. The improvement of public spaces and transportation systems. The enhancement of environmental quality. The project’s success was attributed to long-term planning, a collaboration between public and private entities, and implementation of innovative technologies and design strategies. The Concept of Slum The Concept of Slum in Turkey In Turkey, slums refer to informal settlements that are characterized by inadequate housing conditions, lack of basic services, and social exclusion. These settlements are typically located on the outskirts of cities and inhabited by low-income, marginalized, and immigrant populations. The slum problem in Turkey is rooted in rapid urbanization, poverty, and insufficient urban planning and management (Tannerfeldt & Ljung, 2006). Solutions to the Slum Problem The solutions to the slum problem in Turkey include various measures, such as urban regeneration, housing subsidies, and community participation. Urban regeneration aims to improve the physical and social conditions of the slums by upgrading infrastructure, providing social services, and creating public spaces. Housing subsidies aim to support low-income households to access decent and affordable housing. Community participation aims to empower slum residents to take an active role in the planning and implementing of urban development projects. Çinçin District Urban Transformation Project Historical Development of Cincin Neighborhood Çinçin District is located in Ankara, Turkey, and has a historical past dating back to the Ottoman period. However, the area has been neglected recently, leading to deteriorating living conditions, infrastructure, and urban decay. The Purpose of the Cincin Neighborhood Project The Çinçin District Urban Transformation Project aimed to improve the living conditions of the residents by providing better housing, infrastructure, and public spaces while preserving the historical and cultural heritage of the area—the project aimed to create a more sustainable and liveable neighborhood with modern amenities. Project Stages of Cincin Neighborhood The project stages of Çinçin Neighborhood included the identification of the area in need of transformation, the establishment of partnerships with the local government, community, and private sector, the development of a master plan, and the implementation of the plan in phases. The project involved the demolition of dilapidated structures and the construction of modern buildings with better infrastructure, green spaces, and public facilities. Dikmen Valley Urban Transformation Project Historical Development of Dikmen Valley Dikmen Valley is a historical area in Ankara, Turkey, with a long history dating back to ancient times. The valley was originally used for agriculture and later developed into a residential area in the 20th century. However, the area has recently experienced urban decay, informal settlements, and poor living conditions. Purpose of Dikmen Valley Project The purpose of the Dikmen Valley Urban Transformation Project was to improve the living conditions of the residents by providing better housing, infrastructure, and public spaces while preserving the historical and cultural heritage of the area—the project aimed to create a more sustainable and livable neighborhood with modern amenities. Stages of Dikmen Valley Project The project stages of the Dikmen Valley project included the identification of the area in need of transformation, the establishment of partnerships with the local government, community, and private sector, the development of a master plan, and the implementation of the plan in phases. The project involved the demolition of dilapidated structures and the construction of modern buildings with better infrastructure, green spaces, and public facilities. People Migrating from Slums to Apartments Spatial Change The migration of people from slums to apartments leads to a significant spatial change as residents move from cramped, informal settlements to modern, formal housing (Pojani, 2019). The apartments are often located in newly developed areas with better infrastructure, access to services, and public facilities. The spatial change also results in the creation of new neighborhoods and the redevelopment of old ones. Impact on Daily Life The impact of migration from slums to apartments on daily life can be significant. Residents of apartments often have better access to education, healthcare, employment opportunities, and public transportation, which can improve their overall quality of life. However, migration can also lead to social disruption and loss of community cohesion as residents move away from their traditional neighborhoods and social networks. 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