Review mock studies and analyze data within each study. You will need to CAREFULLY follow the directions outlined in each section of the attached document using SPSS. Some of the studies require you to enter data and some require you to use the GSS data set. You will list the five steps of hypothesis testing for each Mock Study to see how every question should be formatted. You will decide whether to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis based on the two-tailed p value. Be sure to cut and paste the appropriate SPSS outputs under each problem and interpret the outputs within the context of each mock study.

All calculations should be coming from your SPSS. Hand calculation IS not accepted. You are also required to submit the SPSS output file (*.spv) to get credit for this assignment. This .spv file should include ALL your outputs. In other words, continue to save your output file as you conduct each analysis.

Review mock studies and analyze data within each study. You will need to CAREFULLY follow the directions outlined in each section of the attached document using SPSS. Some of the studies require you t

Assignment 1: Learning and Applying Tests of Significance Throughout this assignment you will review six mock studies. Follow the step-by-step instructions: Mock Studies 1 – 3 require you to enter data from scratch. You need to create a data set for each of the three mock studies by yourself. (Refresh the data entry skill acquired in Week 1.) Mock Studies 4 – 6 require you to use the GSS dataset specified in the course. The variables are given in each Mock Study. Go through the five steps of hypothesis testing (below) for EVERY mock study. All calculations should be coming from your SPSS. You will need to submit the SPSS output file (.spv) to get credit for this assignment. The five steps of hypothesis testing when using SPSS are as follows: State your research hypothesis (H1) and null hypothesis (H0). Identify your significance level (alpha) at .05 or .01, based on the mock study. You only need to use ONE level of significance (either .05 or .01) as specified in the instructions. Conduct your analysis using SPSS. Look for the valid score for comparison. This score is usually under ‘Sig 2-tail’ or ‘Sig. 2’ or ‘Asymptotic Sig.’ We will call this “p.” Compare the two and apply the following rule: If “p” is < or = alpha, then you reject the null. Please explain what this decision means in regards to this mock study. (Ex: Will you recommend counseling services?) Please make sure your answers are clearly distinguishable. Perhaps you could bold your font or use a different color. This assignment is due no later than Sunday of Week 4 by 11:55 pm ET. Save this Word file in the following format: [your last name_SOCI332_A1]. Your spv (SPSS output) file should be labeled [your last name_SOCI332_A1Output]. t-Tests Mock Study 1: t-Test for Independent Samples (20 points) Six months after an industrial accident, a researcher has been asked to compare the job satisfaction of employees who participated in counseling sessions with those who chose not to participate. The job satisfaction scores for both groups are reported in the table below. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the job satisfaction scores of the group that participated in counseling session are statistically different from the scores of employees who chose not to participate in counseling sessions at .01 level of significance. (Alpha = .01) Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researcher should recommend counseling as a method to improve job satisfaction following industrial accidents based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Data to be entered in SPSS (instructions below) PARTICIPATED IN COUNSELING DID NOT PARTICIPATE IN COUNSELING 35 38 39 36 41 36 36 32 37 30 36 39 37 41 39 35 42 33 38 38 Step 1: Data managing Open a blank SPSS data file: File New Data In the blank SPSS data file, create your SPSS data set by entering the job satisfaction scores of those who participated/did not participate in the counseling sessions (reported on previous page). Please create two columns. Column one is the test variable, where you enter ALL the 20 scores in the table. Column 2 is the grouping variable, where you use “1” to indicate if a score is from someone who participated in the counseling sessions; and “0” to indicate if a score is from someone who chose not to participate in the counseling sessions. The data set will look like this in SPSS Data View window: 35 1 39 1 ………. 38 0 36 0 ………. After data entry, go to Variable View window, change the name of the first variable (test variable) to “JOBSAT” and the second variable (grouping variable) as “group.” Set decimals for both variables to zero. Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Compare MeansIndependent-Samples T Test use arrow to move JOBSAT to “Test Variable” use arrow to move “group” to “Grouping Variable” when two (? ?) appear, click Define Groups. On the next pop up window, enter “1” for “Group 1” and “0” to “Group 2.” Click OK. Mock Study 2: t- Test for Dependent Means (15 points) Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living before and after group therapy. More ADL after therapy is a positive outcome. The researchers randomly selected 10 depressed clients in a 6-week group therapy program. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the numbers of activities of daily living obtained before and after therapy are statistically significant at .05 level of significance. (Alpha = .05) Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researchers should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Data to be entered in SPSS (instructions below) CLIENT BEFORE THERAPY AFTER THERAPY 11 16 12 10 13 13 20 11 14 12 15 15 17 13 18 12 Step 1: Managing data Open a blank SPSS data file: FileNewData In the blank SPSS data file, create your SPSS data set by entering the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients (see above) in the Data View window. Enter the “before therapy” scores in the first column and the “after therapy” scores in the second column. In the Variable View window, change the variable name for the first variable to “ADLPRE” and the second variable to “ADLPOST.” Set the decimals for both variables to zero. Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Compare Means Paired-Samples t-Test use the arrow to move ADLPRE under “variable 1” inside Paired Variable(s) window and then use the arrow to move ADLPOST under “variable 2” inside Paired Variable(s) window. Click OK. Mock Study 3: t-Test for a Single Sample (15 points) Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living (ADL) after group therapy than the average for depressed people. More ADL is a positive outcome. The researchers randomly selected 20 depressed clients to undergo a 6-week group therapy program. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the average number of activities of daily living (shown below in the table) obtained after therapy is significantly different from a mean number of activities – 15 – that is typical for depressed people. (Clearly list each step). Test the difference at both the .05 level of significance. (Alpha = .05) Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the behavioral scientists should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Data to be entered in SPSS (instructions below) CLIENT AFTER THERAPY ADL 17 14 11 23 24 17 14 10 21 11 22 19 15 17 23 12 10 15 20 18 Step 1: Data managing Open a blank SPSS data file: File New Data In the blank SPSS data file, create your SPSS data set by entering the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients (numbers listed under AFTER THERAPY – see above) in the Data View window. In the Variable View window, change the variable name to “ADL.” Set the decimals to zero. Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Compare Means One-Sample T test use the arrow to move “ADL” to the Variable(s) window on the right. Enter the population mean (15) in “Test Value” Click OK. ANOVA (15 points) Mock study 4: One-Way ANOVA An advertising firm has been hired to assess whether different demographics have different rates of TV watching to help determine their advertising strategy. Using the GSS 2018 data, determine whether hours of tv watched differs by race. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the number of hours watching TV across three groups are statistically significant at .05 level of significance. (Alpha = .05) Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the advertising firm should target each racial group differently (if their habits differ) based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Variables from GSS 2018 dataset to be used (instructions below): RACE – race of respondent1 = WHITE 2 = BLACK 3 = OTHER TVHOURS – hours per day watching TV Step 1: Data managing Open a blank SPSS data file: File Open Data GSS2018.sav (from wherever you have it saved) Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Compare Means One-Way ANOVA use arrow to move TVHOURS to “Dependent Variable list” use arrow to move RACE to “Factor,” which instructs SPSS to conduct the analysis of variance on the number of activities performed by therapy type. Click: Options Descriptive (to obtain descriptive statistics). Click: Continue Click: OK. Additional question based on Mock Study 4 Describe the circumstances under which you should use ANOVA instead of t-Tests. Explain why t-Tests are inappropriate in these circumstances. Regression (20 points) Mock study 5: Linear Regression Researchers in the field of gerontology are researching the effects of age on mental health. They are using GSS data to gather some preliminary findings. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct a linear regression analysis to determine whether age affects number of poor mental health days at the .05 level of significance. (Alpha = .05) Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether there is a significant relationship between age and mental health at the .05 level and what does this mean in regard to this mock study. Should the researchers continue their study? Variables from GSS 2018 dataset to be used (instructions below): AGE – age of respondent MNTLHLTH – Days of poor mental health past 30 days Step 1: Data managing Open a blank SPSS data file: File Open Data GSS2018.sav (from wherever you have it saved) Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Regression Linear use arrow to move MNTLHLTH to “Dependent list” use arrow to move AGE to “Independent,” which instructs SPSS to conduct the linear regression on the relationship of age to poor mental health. Click: OK. For Mock Study 5, after completing the 5 steps of hypothesis testing, also construct the regression equation for the analysis. What does this tell us? Chi-Square (15 points) Mock study 6: Chi-Square Test for Independence Researchers are interested in whether US adults have different levels of confidence in Congress (legislative branch of the federal government) in conjunction with how strongly that person identifies with a specific political party. These data are presented below. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct chi-square test for independence at the .05 level of significance. (Alpha = .05). Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the observed frequency is significantly different from the expected frequency, and what that means in regard to this mock study. In other words, does political party affiliation effect one’s confidence in Congress? Variables from GSS 2018 dataset to be used (instructions below): CONLEGIS – confidence in congress (legislative branch of government)1 = A GREAT DEAL 2 = ONLY SOME 3 = HARDLY ANY PARTYID – political party affiliation 0 = STRONG DEMOCRAT 1 = NOT STR DEMOCRAT 2 = IND NEAR DEMOCRAT 3 = INDEPENDENT 4 = IND NEAR REPUBLICAN 5 = NOT STR REPUBLICAN 6 = STRONG REPUBLICAN 7 = OTHER PARTY Step 1: Data managing Open a blank SPSS data file: File Open Data GSS2018.sav (from wherever you have it saved) Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs use arrow to move “PARTYID” to “Column(s)” use arrow to move “CONLEGIS” to “Row(s).” (Recall in crosstab, DV is always in the row and IV is always in the column.) Click: Statistics check “Chi-Square.” Click: Continue. Click: Cells check “Expected.” Click: Continue. Click: OK. 9

Review mock studies and analyze data within each study. You will need to CAREFULLY follow the directions outlined in each section of the attached document using SPSS. Some of the studies require you t

Assignment 1: Learning and Applying Tests of Significance Throughout this assignment you will review six mock studies. Follow the step-by-step instructions: Mock Studies 1 – 3 require you to enter data from scratch. You need to create a data set for each of the three mock studies by yourself. (Refresh the data entry skill acquired in Week 1.) Mock Studies 4 – 6 require you to use the GSS dataset specified in the course. The variables are given in each Mock Study. Go through the five steps of hypothesis testing (below) for EVERY mock study. All calculations should be coming from your SPSS. You will need to submit the SPSS output file (.spv) to get credit for this assignment. The five steps of hypothesis testing when using SPSS are as follows: State your research hypothesis (H1) and null hypothesis (H0). Identify your significance level (alpha) at .05 or .01, based on the mock study. You only need to use ONE level of significance (either .05 or .01) as specified in the instructions. Conduct your analysis using SPSS. Look for the valid score for comparison. This score is usually under ‘Sig 2-tail’ or ‘Sig. 2’ or ‘Asymptotic Sig.’ We will call this “p.” Compare the two and apply the following rule: If “p” is < or = alpha, then you reject the null. Please explain what this decision means in regards to this mock study. (Ex: Will you recommend counseling services?) Please make sure your answers are clearly distinguishable. Perhaps you could bold your font or use a different color. This assignment is due no later than Sunday of Week 4 by 11:55 pm ET. Save this Word file in the following format: [your last name_SOCI332_A1]. Your spv (SPSS output) file should be labeled [your last name_SOCI332_A1Output]. t-Tests Mock Study 1: t-Test for Independent Samples (20 points) Six months after an industrial accident, a researcher has been asked to compare the job satisfaction of employees who participated in counseling sessions with those who chose not to participate. The job satisfaction scores for both groups are reported in the table below. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the job satisfaction scores of the group that participated in counseling session are statistically different from the scores of employees who chose not to participate in counseling sessions at .01 level of significance. (Alpha = .01) Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researcher should recommend counseling as a method to improve job satisfaction following industrial accidents based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Data to be entered in SPSS (instructions below) PARTICIPATED IN COUNSELING DID NOT PARTICIPATE IN COUNSELING 35 38 39 36 41 36 36 32 37 30 36 39 37 41 39 35 42 33 38 38 Step 1: Data managing Open a blank SPSS data file: File New Data In the blank SPSS data file, create your SPSS data set by entering the job satisfaction scores of those who participated/did not participate in the counseling sessions (reported on previous page). Please create two columns. Column one is the test variable, where you enter ALL the 20 scores in the table. Column 2 is the grouping variable, where you use “1” to indicate if a score is from someone who participated in the counseling sessions; and “0” to indicate if a score is from someone who chose not to participate in the counseling sessions. The data set will look like this in SPSS Data View window: 35 1 39 1 ………. 38 0 36 0 ………. After data entry, go to Variable View window, change the name of the first variable (test variable) to “JOBSAT” and the second variable (grouping variable) as “group.” Set decimals for both variables to zero. Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Compare MeansIndependent-Samples T Test use arrow to move JOBSAT to “Test Variable” use arrow to move “group” to “Grouping Variable” when two (? ?) appear, click Define Groups. On the next pop up window, enter “1” for “Group 1” and “0” to “Group 2.” Click OK. Mock Study 2: t- Test for Dependent Means (15 points) Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living before and after group therapy. More ADL after therapy is a positive outcome. The researchers randomly selected 10 depressed clients in a 6-week group therapy program. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the numbers of activities of daily living obtained before and after therapy are statistically significant at .05 level of significance. (Alpha = .05) Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researchers should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Data to be entered in SPSS (instructions below) CLIENT BEFORE THERAPY AFTER THERAPY 11 16 12 10 13 13 20 11 14 12 15 15 17 13 18 12 Step 1: Managing data Open a blank SPSS data file: FileNewData In the blank SPSS data file, create your SPSS data set by entering the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients (see above) in the Data View window. Enter the “before therapy” scores in the first column and the “after therapy” scores in the second column. In the Variable View window, change the variable name for the first variable to “ADLPRE” and the second variable to “ADLPOST.” Set the decimals for both variables to zero. Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Compare Means Paired-Samples t-Test use the arrow to move ADLPRE under “variable 1” inside Paired Variable(s) window and then use the arrow to move ADLPOST under “variable 2” inside Paired Variable(s) window. Click OK. Mock Study 3: t-Test for a Single Sample (15 points) Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living (ADL) after group therapy than the average for depressed people. More ADL is a positive outcome. The researchers randomly selected 20 depressed clients to undergo a 6-week group therapy program. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the average number of activities of daily living (shown below in the table) obtained after therapy is significantly different from a mean number of activities – 15 – that is typical for depressed people. (Clearly list each step). Test the difference at both the .05 level of significance. (Alpha = .05) Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the behavioral scientists should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Data to be entered in SPSS (instructions below) CLIENT AFTER THERAPY ADL 17 14 11 23 24 17 14 10 21 11 22 19 15 17 23 12 10 15 20 18 Step 1: Data managing Open a blank SPSS data file: File New Data In the blank SPSS data file, create your SPSS data set by entering the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients (numbers listed under AFTER THERAPY – see above) in the Data View window. In the Variable View window, change the variable name to “ADL.” Set the decimals to zero. Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Compare Means One-Sample T test use the arrow to move “ADL” to the Variable(s) window on the right. Enter the population mean (15) in “Test Value” Click OK. ANOVA (15 points) Mock study 4: One-Way ANOVA An advertising firm has been hired to assess whether different demographics have different rates of TV watching to help determine their advertising strategy. Using the GSS 2018 data, determine whether hours of tv watched differs by race. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the number of hours watching TV across three groups are statistically significant at .05 level of significance. (Alpha = .05) Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the advertising firm should target each racial group differently (if their habits differ) based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Variables from GSS 2018 dataset to be used (instructions below): RACE – race of respondent1 = WHITE 2 = BLACK 3 = OTHER TVHOURS – hours per day watching TV Step 1: Data managing Open a blank SPSS data file: File Open Data GSS2018.sav (from wherever you have it saved) Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Compare Means One-Way ANOVA use arrow to move TVHOURS to “Dependent Variable list” use arrow to move RACE to “Factor,” which instructs SPSS to conduct the analysis of variance on the number of activities performed by therapy type. Click: Options Descriptive (to obtain descriptive statistics). Click: Continue Click: OK. Additional question based on Mock Study 4 Describe the circumstances under which you should use ANOVA instead of t-Tests. Explain why t-Tests are inappropriate in these circumstances. Regression (20 points) Mock study 5: Linear Regression Researchers in the field of gerontology are researching the effects of age on mental health. They are using GSS data to gather some preliminary findings. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct a linear regression analysis to determine whether age affects number of poor mental health days at the .05 level of significance. (Alpha = .05) Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether there is a significant relationship between age and mental health at the .05 level and what does this mean in regard to this mock study. Should the researchers continue their study? Variables from GSS 2018 dataset to be used (instructions below): AGE – age of respondent MNTLHLTH – Days of poor mental health past 30 days Step 1: Data managing Open a blank SPSS data file: File Open Data GSS2018.sav (from wherever you have it saved) Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Regression Linear use arrow to move MNTLHLTH to “Dependent list” use arrow to move AGE to “Independent,” which instructs SPSS to conduct the linear regression on the relationship of age to poor mental health. Click: OK. For Mock Study 5, after completing the 5 steps of hypothesis testing, also construct the regression equation for the analysis. What does this tell us? Chi-Square (15 points) Mock study 6: Chi-Square Test for Independence Researchers are interested in whether US adults have different levels of confidence in Congress (legislative branch of the federal government) in conjunction with how strongly that person identifies with a specific political party. These data are presented below. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct chi-square test for independence at the .05 level of significance. (Alpha = .05). Clearly list each step of hypothesis testing. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the observed frequency is significantly different from the expected frequency, and what that means in regard to this mock study. In other words, does political party affiliation effect one’s confidence in Congress? Variables from GSS 2018 dataset to be used (instructions below): CONLEGIS – confidence in congress (legislative branch of government)1 = A GREAT DEAL 2 = ONLY SOME 3 = HARDLY ANY PARTYID – political party affiliation 0 = STRONG DEMOCRAT 1 = NOT STR DEMOCRAT 2 = IND NEAR DEMOCRAT 3 = INDEPENDENT 4 = IND NEAR REPUBLICAN 5 = NOT STR REPUBLICAN 6 = STRONG REPUBLICAN 7 = OTHER PARTY Step 1: Data managing Open a blank SPSS data file: File Open Data GSS2018.sav (from wherever you have it saved) Step 2: SPSS execution Click: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs use arrow to move “PARTYID” to “Column(s)” use arrow to move “CONLEGIS” to “Row(s).” (Recall in crosstab, DV is always in the row and IV is always in the column.) Click: Statistics check “Chi-Square.” Click: Continue. Click: Cells check “Expected.” Click: Continue. Click: OK. 9