For this lab you will be writing a lab report, including an abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion section, as well as a descriptive title (page) and short concluding paragraph. All exte

For this lab you will be writing a lab report, including an abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion section, as well as a descriptive title (page) and short concluding paragraph. All external sources of information should be included in a references section at the end of the report. Assignments are to be submitted individually. Collaboration is encouraged when completing the assignment, but work submitted must be unique to each individual (in their own words).

Report must include the following sections to be a complete report:

  • Title Page
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods




References / Literature Cited (CSE Format)

-Minimum 3 primary sources

Report Formatting:

– 5pages in length(can be longer if needed) • 12pt Times New Roman font

1.5 line spacing (paragraph setting) • No modifications to the margins

Be sure to include the following in the results section:

Properly formatted graph depicting means and standard deviations calculated.

Descriptions of Qualitative data and Quantitative Data Collected in the written paragraph.

Written results of the t-test (with values in parentheses) in the written paragraph.

Graphs depict analyzed data (not raw) with appropriate labelled axes with units, error bars (if applicable), a figure caption including graph title, brief description, sample size, and description of error bars (if applicable). The appropriate style/type of graph will be based on the data depicted. Summary tables should be well organized with a clear and appropriate table caption (above the table) complete with title, description, and sample size.

Scientific writing- overview

Title Page

Title of your report

Sufficiently descriptive of what will be discussed

with proper nomenclature


Overview of the entire piece of writing

1-2 sentences that outline the most important information from each sections:

  • Introduction (Including the objective)
  • methods
  • results
  • discussion

Introduction- Part 1

  • Introduce the topic of interest

– set up context and current knowledge

  • Background knowledge

– General background (1-2 paragraphs)

– Point 1 (1 citation)

– Point 2 (1 citation)

– …

  • Information presented is based on the objective

– Ex. examining the effects of A on B

– What do we know about B?

– What do we know about A+B?

Introduction – Part 2

Indicate your objective and hypothesis

Objective: Examine the effects of ___________ on ___________

Hypothesis: _________ will cause ________ to ________

Hypotheses answer/address a question/objective

Hypothesis is supported by background information (presented earlier, or restated here)

Be careful your hypothesis is not actually your predictions!

Methods Section

• Methods: Overall Experimental Setup (not every detail)

Species of Interest (somewhere in the paragraph)

Manipulation(s) (independent variable) – Experimental/Control Groups

Controls and Consistent Features

Measurement(s) (dependent/responding variable(s) – Data Collected

Analyses (how were raw collected data analyzed??)

Analysis 1

Analysis 2

Analysis …

Tool for analyses and Data Depiction – What tool was used to do the analyses?

Where did methods come from? (either first or last sentence)

• Reference and in-text cite the lab manual • What did you do? (Past tense)

Results Section

What are the results of your experiment?

Written paragraph:

• What do your analyses show? (reporting numbers with descriptions)

• Are there any patterns or trends? What are numbers that describe these?• Reference the figure in written text (ex. Figure 1 shows…, or …(Figure 1))

• Figure/Graph (Where these values are presented)

Do figures and tables have a descriptive caption?

Proper formatting (axes, etc.)

Do they have enough detail to stand alone?

Discussion – Part 1

• What are your key results? • Briefly restate them

What do these results mean? (Interpretation)

Should bring into the context of the hypothesis/objective

What do the specific results you collected tell us?

What explains the results (biological explanation)

Use references/sources to give a reason we see results or should see different results.

Are your findings consistent with other experiments (sources)


Result 1: “We found X…”

“These results indicate y…” (context of the objective)

Explain why you might/not find these results

Repeat for all important results

Summarize with What all your results, interpretation, and explanation tell you about the experimental objective (conclusion statement)

Discussion – Part 2

Evaluate the design of your experiment

What are potential deficiencies in your design?

How would you adjust your design in the future to obtain better results?

Go beyond sample size and human error, these should not be flaws

Sample size is based on resources available and is a sample for a reason

Human error can happen, but we try to minimize it as best we can (don’t throw yourself under the bus)

If these really are issues, you have a poor experiment and should reassess before performing it.

What are possible future directions that your work applies to?

What might be a “next step in this field?

What new questions do you have after performing the experiment?


Can be in the form of a conclusion paragraph.

Briefly restate some key points from your report, including:

Initial objective of the experiment

What were the main results? (trends, no numbers)

What do these results mean/tell us? (interpretation, no numbers)

Importance/relevance of the findings (implications/applications)

References Section

Contains the full citation for each source used in the report

Using CSE format

Check the formatting, marks can easily be lost if not checked!

Sources cited in text must appear here (and vise versa)

The data that should be used in this lab report is attached here.

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