Answer the Questions based on the article attached:
1. What is the goal of this review paper and why do the authors consider it important?
2. Referencing the text and Figure 1, explain how the keystone effects of parasitism can cause: a. apparent competition between host species b. coexistence between competitors c. top-down trophic cascades
3. Explain how parasites can potentially affect the stability of ecological communities.
4. Examine the conceptual model in Figure 5. Explain how differences in parasite transmission can have either positive or negative effects on the population densities of vulnerable hosts