Explain two goals of politicians when they gerrymander during redistricting.

Answer (1) one of the following question: 

1A. Presidential approval ratings fluctuate over the course of each presidential administration.

  1. Identify two factors that decrease presidential approval ratings, and explain why each factor has that effect.
  2. Identify two factors that increase presidential approval ratings, and explain why each factor has that effect.

2A. Citizens often choose to participate in the political process in ways other than voting.

  1. Identify two forms of participation in the political process other than voting.
  2. Explain two advantages of each form of participation you identified in (a).

Answer (1) one of the following question:  

1B- Congressional reapportionment and redistricting are conducted every ten years. When redistricting is conducted, politicians often engage in gerrymandering.

  1. Define congressional reapportionment and explain one reason why it is important to states.
  2. Define congressional redistricting.
  3. Explain two goals of politicians when they gerrymander during redistricting.
  4. Describe two limits that the United States Supreme Court has placed on congressional redistricting

2B- In the United States Congress, the majority party exerts a substantial influence over lawmaking. However, even when one party has a numerical majority in each chamber of the United States Congress, there is no guarantee that legislation supported by that majority party will be passed by both chambers. Rules of each chamber independently influence the likelihood that legislation will pass in that chamber; legislation passed by one chamber is not always passed by the other.

  1. Describe two advantages the majority party in the United States House of Representatives has in lawmaking, above and beyond the numerical advantage that the majority party enjoys in floor voting.
  2. Describe two differences between House and Senate rules that may make it likely that legislation may pass in one chamber but not in the other.
  3. Explain how the differences identified in (b) can lead to the passage of a bill in one chamber but not in the other.

Answer (1) one of the following question:  

1C- The judicial branch is designed to be more independent of public opinion than are the legislative or the executive. Yet the US Supreme Court rarely deviates too far for too long from the prevalent public opinion.

  1. Describe two ways in which the US Supreme Court is insulated from public opinion.
  2. Explain how two factors work to keep the US Supreme Court from deviating too far from public opinion.

2C- Different interest groups will choose different techniques to achieve their objectives based on their resources, characteristics and goals.

  1. Describe each of the following techniques and explain why an interest group would choose each technique.
    1. Litigation
    2. Campaign contributions
    3. Grassroots lobbying/mass mobilization

Extra Credit question:  

E1- In the United States political system, there are several linkage institutions that can connect citizens to government. Elections constitute one such institution. Because of low voter turnout, elections represent an imperfect method of linking citizens to their government. Even when there is low voter turnout, however, other linkage institutions can connect citizens to government.

  1. Describe how each of the following is related to the likelihood of voting.
    1. Age
    2. Education
  2. Identify one current government electoral requirement that decreases voter turnout.
  3. Explain how it decreases voter turnout.
  4. Identify one linkage institution other than elections and explain two ways it connects citizens to government.

E2- Initially the US Constitution did little to protect citizens from actions of the states. In the 20th century, the Supreme Court interpreted the Constitution to protect the rights of citizens from state governments in a process referred to as incorporation.

  1. Define selective incorporation.
  2. For two of the following, explain how each has been incorporated. Each of your
  3. explanations must be based on a specific and relevant Supreme Court decision.
    1. Rights of criminal defendants
    2. First Amendment
    3. Privacy rights
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