Discuss The Pros And Cons Of Allowing Companies To Amass Personal Data For Behavioral Targeting.

4.1 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

Chapter 4

Video cases: Case 1: “What Net Neutrality Means for You” Case 2: Facebook Privacy Case 3: Data Mining for Terrorists and Innocents Instructional Video 1: “Victor Mayer Schonberger on the Right to be Forgotten”

 

 

4.2 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• What ethical, social, and political issues are raised by information systems?

• What specific principles for conduct can be used to guide ethical decisions?

• Why do contemporary information systems technology and the Internet pose challenges to the protection of individual privacy and intellectual property?

• How have information systems affected everyday life?

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 

 

4.3 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Problem: Need to efficiently target online ads.

• Solutions: Behavioral targeting allows businesses and organizations to more precisely target desired demographics.

• Google uses tracking files to monitor user activity on thousands of sites; businesses monitor activity on their own sites to better understand customers.

• Demonstrates IT’s role in organizing and distributing information.

• Illustrates the ethical questions inherent in online information gathering.

Behavioral Targeting: Your Privacy Is the Target

 

 

4.4 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Recent cases of failed ethical judgment in business: – Barclay’s Bank, GlaxoSmithKline, Walmart – In many, information systems used to bury decisions

from public scrutiny

• Ethics – Principles of right and wrong that individuals, acting

as free moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviors

Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems

 

 

4.5 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Information systems and ethics – Information systems raise new ethical questions

because they create opportunities for: • Intense social change, threatening existing

distributions of power, money, rights, and obligations

• New kinds of crime

Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems

 

 

4.6 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• A model for thinking about ethical, social, and political Issues – Society as a calm pond – IT as rock dropped in pond, creating ripples of new

situations not covered by old rules – Social and political institutions cannot respond

overnight to these ripples—it may take years to develop etiquette, expectations, laws

• Requires understanding of ethics to make choices in legally gray areas

Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems

 

 

4.7 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

The introduction of new information technology has a ripple effect, raising new ethical, social, and political issues that must be dealt with on the individual, social, and political levels. These issues have five moral dimensions: information rights and obligations, property rights and obligations, system quality, quality of life, and accountability and control.

Figure 4-1

THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG ETHICAL, SOCIAL, POLITICAL ISSUES IN AN INFORMATION SOCIETY

 

 

4.8 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Five moral dimensions of the information age: – Information rights and obligations – Property rights and obligations – Accountability and control – System quality – Quality of life

Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems

 

 

4.9 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Key technology trends that raise ethical issues – Doubling of computer power

• More organizations depend on computer systems for critical operations.

– Rapidly declining data storage costs • Organizations can easily maintain detailed databases on

individuals.

– Networking advances and the Internet • Copying data from one location to another and accessing personal

data from remote locations are much easier.

Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems

 

 

4.10 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

– Advances in data analysis techniques • Profiling

– Combining data from multiple sources to create dossiers of detailed information on individuals

• Nonobvious relationship awareness (NORA) – Combining data from multiple sources to find

obscure hidden connections that might help identify criminals or terrorists

– Mobile device growth • Tracking of individual cell phones

Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems

 

 

4.11 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

NORA technology can take information about people from disparate sources and find obscure, nonobvious relationships. It might discover, for example, that an applicant for a job at a casino shares a telephone number with a known criminal and issue an alert to the hiring manager.

Figure 4-2

NONOBVIOUS RELATIONSHIP AWARENESS (NORA)

 

 

4.12 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Basic concepts for ethical analysis – Responsibility:

• Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for decisions

– Accountability: • Mechanisms for identifying responsible parties

– Liability: • Permits individuals (and firms) to recover damages done to them

– Due process: • Laws are well-known and understood, with an ability to appeal to

higher authorities

Ethics in an Information Society

 

 

4.13 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Five-step ethical analysis 1. Identify and clearly describe the facts. 2. Define the conflict or dilemma and identify the

higher-order values involved. 3. Identify the stakeholders. 4. Identify the options that you can reasonably take. 5. Identify the potential consequences of your

options.

Ethics in an Information Society

 

 

4.14 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Candidate ethical principles – Golden Rule

• Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. – Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative

• If an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone.

– Descartes’ Rule of Change • If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right

to take at all.

Ethics in an Information Society

 

 

4.15 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Candidate ethical principles (cont.)

– Utilitarian Principle • Take the action that achieves the higher or greater

value. – Risk Aversion Principle

• Take the action that produces the least harm or potential cost.

– Ethical “No Free Lunch” Rule • Assume that virtually all tangible and intangible objects

are owned by someone unless there is a specific declaration otherwise.

Ethics in an Information Society

 

 

4.16 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Professional codes of conduct – Promulgated by associations of professionals

• Examples: AMA, ABA, AITP, ACM – Promises by professions to regulate themselves in

the general interest of society

• Real-world ethical dilemmas – One set of interests pitted against another

• Example: right of company to maximize productivity of workers versus workers right to use Internet for short personal tasks

Ethics in an Information Society

 

 

4.17 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Information rights: privacy and freedom in the Internet age – Privacy:

• Claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or state; claim to be able to control information about yourself

– In the United States, privacy protected by: • First Amendment (freedom of speech) • Fourth Amendment (unreasonable search and seizure) • Additional federal statues (e.g., Privacy Act of 1974)

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.18 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Fair information practices: – Set of principles governing the collection and use of

information • Basis of most U.S. and European privacy laws • Based on mutuality of interest between record holder and

individual • Restated and extended by FTC in 1998 to provide guidelines for

protecting online privacy – Used to drive changes in privacy legislation

• COPPA • Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act • HIPAA • Do-Not-Track Online Act of 2011

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.19 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• FTC FIP principles: – Notice/awareness (core principle)

• Web sites must disclose practices before collecting data.

– Choice/consent (core principle) • Consumers must be able to choose how information is

used for secondary purposes. – Access/participation

• Consumers must be able to review and contest accuracy of personal data.

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.20 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• FTC FIP principles (cont.) – Security

• Data collectors must take steps to ensure accuracy, security of personal data.

– Enforcement • Must be mechanism to enforce FIP principles.

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.21 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• European Directive on Data Protection: – Companies must inform people information is

collected and disclose how it is stored and used. – Requires informed consent of customer. – EU member nations cannot transfer personal data to

countries without similar privacy protection (e.g., the United States).

– U.S. businesses use safe harbor framework. • Self-regulating policy and enforcement that meets

objectives of government legislation but does not involve government regulation or enforcement.

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.22 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Internet challenges to privacy: – Cookies

• Identify browser and track visits to site • Super cookies (Flash cookies)

– Web beacons (Web bugs) • Tiny graphics embedded in e-mails and Web pages • Monitor who is reading e-mail message or visiting site

– Spyware • Surreptitiously installed on user’s computer • May transmit user’s keystrokes or display unwanted ads

– Google services and behavioral targeting

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.23 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

Cookies are written by a Web site on a visitor’s hard drive. When the visitor returns to that Web site, the Web server requests the ID number from the cookie and uses it to access the data stored by that server on that visitor. The Web site can then use these data to display personalized information.

Figure 4-3

HOW COOKIES IDENTIFY WEB VISITORS

 

 

4.24 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• The United States allows businesses to gather transaction information and use this for other marketing purposes. – Opt-out vs. opt-in model

• Online industry promotes self-regulation over privacy legislation.

• However, extent of responsibility taken varies: – Complex/ambiguous privacy statements – Opt-out models selected over opt-in

– Online “seals” of privacy principles

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.25 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Technical solutions – E-mail encryption – Anonymity tools – Anti-spyware tools – Browser features

• “Private” browsing • “Do not track” options

– Overall, few technical solutions

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.26 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

Read the Interactive Session and discuss the following questions

Interactive Session: Technology

• Why do mobile phone manufacturers (Apple, Google, and BlackBerry) want to track where their customers go?

• Do you think mobile phone customers should be able to turn tracking off? Should customers be informed when they are being tracked? Why or why not?

• Do you think mobile phone tracking is a violation of a person’s privacy?

Life on the Grid: iPhone becomes iTrack

 

 

4.27 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Property rights: Intellectual property – Intellectual property: intangible property of any kind

created by individuals or corporations – Three main ways that intellectual property is

protected: • Trade secret: intellectual work or product belonging to

business, not in the public domain • Copyright: statutory grant protecting intellectual

property from being copied for the life of the author, plus 70 years

• Patents: grants creator of invention an exclusive monopoly on ideas behind invention for 20 years

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.28 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Challenges to intellectual property rights – Digital media different from physical media (e.g.,

books) • Ease of replication • Ease of transmission (networks, Internet) • Difficulty in classifying software • Compactness • Difficulties in establishing uniqueness

• Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) – Makes it illegal to circumvent technology-based

protections of copyrighted materials

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.29 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Accountability, liability, control – Computer-related liability problems

• If software fails, who is responsible? – If seen as part of machine that injures or harms,

software producer and operator may be liable. – If seen as similar to book, difficult to hold

author/publisher responsible. – What should liability be if software seen as service?

Would this be similar to telephone systems not being liable for transmitted messages?

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.30 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• System quality: Data quality and system errors – What is an acceptable, technologically feasible level

of system quality? • Flawless software is economically unfeasible.

– Three principal sources of poor system performance: • Software bugs, errors • Hardware or facility failures • Poor input data quality (most common source of

business system failure)

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.31 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Quality of life: Equity, access, boundaries – Negative social consequences of systems

• Balancing power: although computing power decentralizing, key decision making remains centralized

• Rapidity of change: businesses may not have enough time to respond to global competition

• Maintaining boundaries: computing, Internet use lengthens work-day, infringes on family, personal time

• Dependence and vulnerability: public and private organizations ever more dependent on computer systems

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.32 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Computer crime and abuse – Computer crime: commission of illegal acts through use of computer

or against a computer system—computer may be object or instrument of crime

– Computer abuse: unethical acts, not illegal • Spam: high costs for businesses in dealing with spam

• Employment: – Reengineering work resulting in lost jobs

• Equity and access—the digital divide: – Certain ethnic and income groups in the United States less likely to

have computers or Internet access

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.33 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

• Health risks: – Repetitive stress injury (RSI)

• Largest source is computer keyboards • Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

– Computer vision syndrome (CVS) • Eyestrain and headaches related to screen use

– Technostress • Aggravation, impatience, fatigue

The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems

 

 

4.34 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

Read the Interactive Session and discuss the following questions

Interactive Session: Organizations

• How does information technology affect socioeconomic disparities?

• Why is access to technology insufficient to eliminate the digital divide?

• How serious a problem is the “new” digital divide?

• Why is the digital divide problem an ethical dilemma?

WASTING TIME: THE NEW DIGITAL DIVIDE

 

 

4.35 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Management Information Systems Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

 

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